History-1997 -Set III

MODERN INDIA

Q.1. How was the rediscovery of the Indian past significantly connected with the birth of Indian nationalism? What negative features did it produce? ( 8 marks)
Ans. Indian Nationalism was a product of numerous factors. Among these factors, rediscovery of Indian past can be said to be an important feature. Many Indians had fallen so low as to lose confidence in their self-government under the British rule. The British officials and writers had constantly emphasized that Indians had never been able to rule themselves in the past, that Hindus and Muslims had always fought one another, that Indians were destined to rule by foreigners. All this was done to justify the British rule in India. But by the last decade of 19th century, nationalism was surfacing itself in India. The rediscovery of the Indian past played an important role in the rise of nationalist sentiments in India.

The credit for the rediscovery of Indian past goes to the extremist wing of congress as well as the social reformers. Many of the nationalist leaders tried to arouse the self -confidence and self -respect of the people by countering this propaganda. They pointed to the Indian heritage with pride and referred the critics to the political achievements of the rulers like Ashoka, Chandragupta, Vikramaditya and Akbar. They rediscovered India’s national heritage in art, architecture, literature and philosophy. The press played an important role in spreading these ideas. The partition of Bengal was followed by the rise in extremist activities. These extremists revived the Ganapati and Durga festivals to spread the aura of the past.

This revival of the past united the Indians . It gave them a sense of belonging and a sense of pride in their culture and heritage. Through this rediscovery, the western claims that India could develop only through the West came to be challenged. The revival of the past glories of the rulers made the masses realized that the Indian populace could progress on its own. This rediscovery of the past was also accompanied by the growth of negative feelings as it gave birth to communalism. Some of the nationalists went to the extreme and began to glorify India’s past uncritically, ignoring its weaknesses and backwardness. Greta harm was done, in particular, by the tendency to look up only to the heritage of ancient India while ignoring the equally great achievements of the medieval period. A false sense of smugness and pride was introduced which tended to prevent Indians from looking critically at their society.

History-1998 -Set I

Q.1. Why have the Saiyid Brothers been called the ‘kingmakers? (2 marks)
Ans. Mughal emperor Farukh Siyar who ruled in 1713 AD, owed his victory to Saiyid Brothers, Abdullah Khan and Jusain Ali Khan Barahow. The duo helped Farrukh Siyar to defeat Jahandar Shah and in return took up the office of wazir and mir bakshi. The two brothers soon acquired dominant control over the affairs of the state. Farrukh Siyar lacked the capacity to rule but he was not in favor of the two brothers controlling the empire. Thus, there ensued a prolonged struggle for power between the emperor and the Brothers. In the end, in 1919, the Saiyid brothers deposed and killed Farrukh Siyar .In his place they raised to the throne in quick succession two young princes who died of consumption. The princes were replaced by young Muhammad Shah, another puppet emperor under the control of the brothers. Thus, from 1713 until 1720, the Saiyid brothers wielded powers while the real emperor having no control to rule. This gave them the title of being the ‘kingmakers’.

Q.2 Describe the conflicts between the English and the French companies in India in the 18th century. What were the causes of these conflicts and how and when were these conflicts finally resolved?
(8 marks)

Ans. The bitter struggle between the British and the French to secure political authority in South India lasted from 1744 to 1763 AD. The central authority had weakened in South India after Auranzeb’s death. This has resulted in politically unsettled conditions and administrative disorganization. These conditions gave the foreigners an opportunity to expand their political influence over the South Indian states. The English East India Company was not alone in putting forward commercial and political claims. While it was able to eliminate the Dutch and the Portuguese from South India by the end of 17th century, France had appeared as a new rival. For nearly twenty years from 1744 to 1763 AD the French and the British indulged in bitter warfare for control over the trade, wealth and territory of India.

History-1998 -Set II

MODERN INDIA

Q.1. What was the impact of Nadir Shah’s invasion on the Mughal Empire? (2 marks)
Ans. Nadir Shah invaded India in 1793. AD. His invasion left a deep impact on Mughal Empire, which was under Muhammad Shah’s control. It destroyed the Mughal army, which gave opportunity to the Marathas and the Sikh to attack the central empire. The Mughal emperor was reduced to a mere shadow as different chiefs started to assert their independence. In short, Nadir Shah’s invasion accelerated the downfall of the Mughal Empire.

Q.3. Describe the developments that led to the battle of Buxar. What were the consequences of this battle. ( 5 marks)
Ans. The battle of Buxar was the most decisive battle of Indian history for it demonstrated the superiority of British arms over the Indian. It firmly established the British as masters of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. To trace the developments that led to the battle of Buxar, one has to review the developments of later half of 18th century. Bengal had emerged a s the most fertile and richest of the Indian provinces. The British East India Company had secured valuable privileges in 1717 under a royal farman by the Mughal emperor, which had granted the company the freedom to export and import their goods in Bengal without paying taxes and the right to issue passes and dastaks for the movement of such goods.

This Farman was a perpetual source of conflict between the Company and the Nawab of Bengal for it meant loss of revenue to the Bengal government. Also, the Company’s corrupt officers misused the distaffs. Matters came to head when the quick-tempered Siraj -ud – daulah succeeded the throne of Bengal. He demanded of English to that they should trade on the same basis as in the times of Murshid quli Khan. The English refused to do so and instead started building fortification in Calcutta without the permission of the Nawab. The battle of Plassey soon followed in 1757 in which the Nawab was defeated and British placed Mir Zafar, a puppet ruler in his place but in 1760 Mir Zafar was forced to abdicate in favour of his son -in -law Mir Qasim. It was Mir Qasim who belied the hopes of the British and instead of acting according to the British demands, he soon emerged as a major threat to their position and designs in Bengal.He was an able ruler who wanted to free Bengal from foreign rule. He started to replenish the treasury and built a strong army. All this was not to the liking of the British.

Most of all they disliked the Nawabs check on the misuse of the farman and the dastak. British issued these distaffs to their friendly traders who were thereby able to evade taxes. It not only deprived the nawab of revenue but also ruined the honest Indian trader. Mir Qasim took matters under his control by abolishing all duties on internal trade, thus giving his own subjects concessions that the English had seized by force. The British retaliated by war. Mir Qasim was defeated in a series of battle and fled to Awdh in 1763 where he formed an alliance with Shuja-ud-daulah, Nawab of Awadh and Shah Alam. The three allies clashed with the company’s army at battle of Buxar on October 1764 and were thoroughly defeated. The ruling power of Bengal was transferred from the Nawab to the Company. The Company also extracted 15 lakhs rupees from the Nawab as war compensation. The diwani of Bihar, Bengal and Orissa too passed in the British hands. Thus, the company’s control over Bengal was legalised and the revenue of this most prosperous of Indian provinces was placed at its command.

History-1998 -Set III

MODERN INDIA

Q.1. Mention any two measures adopted by Murshid Quli Khan to improve the finances of Bengal. (2 marks)
Ans. Murshid Quli Khan was an able ruler. He reorganised the finances of Bengal by transferring large parts of the jagir lands into khalisah or state land. This was done through introduction of revenue farming and carrying out new revenue settlements. The Nawab recruited revenue farmers and officials from local zamindars and merchant bankers. He also granted loans to poor cultivators to enable them to pay the revenue in time.

Q.3. Mention the different ways in which the wealth of Bengal was drained to Britain after the battle of Plassey. (5 marks)
Ans. The battle of Plassey was fought between the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-daulah and the British army on June 23, 1757. This battle was of immense historical importance as it paved way for the British mastery of Bengal and eventually of the whole of India. The rich revenues of Bengal enabled the English to organise a strong army and meet the cost of the conquest of the rest of the country. Their victory over Bengal enabled the company’s servants to amass untold wealth at the cost of the helpless people of Bengal. Infact,the treasury of Bengal was soon emptied in fulfilling the demands of the British East India Company. The directors of the company ordered that the Bengal should pay the expenses of the Bombay and the Madras presidency and purchase out of its revenue all the company’s exports from India. In short, the battle of Plassey opened the door of rich trasury of Bengal which was emptied in British servant’s pockets.

OR

What were the main issues of social reforms taken up by Raja Rammohan Roy ? Explain any one of the issues in which he was successful in his lifetime.
Ans. Raja Rammohan Roy was an important social reformer of 19th century . He is rightly called as the great leader of Modern India. He worked hard for bringing reforms in social, religious, intellectual and political sphere. He represented a synthesis of the thought of the east and the west. He is associated with various organisations related to upliftment of the society. RajaRammohan Roy founded the Atmiya Sabha in 1814 in Calcutta. In 1829, he founded a new religious society, the Brahma Sabha, later known as the Brahmo Samaj, whose purpose was to purify Hinduism and to preach monotheism or belief in one God. The new society was to be based on the pillars of reason and vedas. The Samaj laid emphasis on human dignity, opposed idol worship and criticized such social issues as the practice of sati. There was hardly any aspect of nation building, which he left untouched but the best example of his life -long crusade against social evil was the historic agitation he organised against the inhuman practice of sati.

History-1999-Set I

Q.1. Mention any two social legislation’s introduced by the British in India before 1857(2 marks)

Ans. Girl infanticide was declared illegal under the reform passed by Lord Bentinck in 1829 AD This reform was followed by another reform passed under Lord Bentinck which declared the hineous practice of sati illegal in 1829 AD

Q.2. Describe the causes of the rivalries and conflicts among the European countries in India in the Eighteenth Century. How were they finally resolved?(5 marks)
Ans. Eighteenth Century was an era of new developments in science and discovery. This period witnessed the growth and expansion of Europe. Nations like Britain, Portugal, France, Italy and Germany were exploring new lands, which could be colonised and used for incurring wealth and power.

The Portuguese were the first to establish their colony in Goa in 1510. And soon the Dutch East India Company that expanded its hold on West India, establishing centres in Surat, Patna, Cochin, followed them. The English, in order to have their trade dealings with India, established the East India Company in 1600A.D. They soon ousted both the Portuguese and the Dutch. British ports were created at Surat, Ahmedabad,Broach, Bombay, Calcutta etc. The French were not far behind. They also established their trading company in 1664 AD and son after, established factories in Masulipatnam and Pondicherry. Later on, they other factories were opened at Chander Nagar, Qassim Bazar, Balassore, Mahe and Karikal. As a result of this, their confrontation with the English became inevitable. The three Carnatic wars or the Anglo French struggle for hegemony ensued from1746 till 1763 AD. They resulted in the defeat of the French and the victory of the British.

The British succeeded in retaining their hold in India and ousting the other European powers because of their better financial position. And full support of their government. Their strong army and naval fleet were able to destruct the trading posts of the Dutch and the Portuguese, who were unpopular among Indians. The British diplomacy succeeded to get the much-needed approval of the Indian rulers.

History-1999-Set II

Q.1 Give any two reasons for the decline of trade in 18th century India. (2 marks)
Ans. Constant warfare and disruption of law and order after the decline of the Mughal Empire in many areas harmed the country’s internal trade. Many areas were looted by the contestant of power and by foreign invaders. Moreover, with the rise of provincial regimes and innumerable local chiefs, the number of customhouses in trading centres grew by heaps. Even petty rulers started demanding heavy custom duties. All these factors had injurious effect on trade.

Q.2. Describe the achievements of the first three Nawabs of Bengal in the field of revenue, trade and administration. ( 5 marks)
Ans. Bengal was a province of Mughal Empire. Auranzeb appointed Murshid Quli Khan as the subedar of Bengal . He was the first Nawab of Bengal. He proved to be an able ruler. He established peace and stability in Bengal by suppressing refractory zamindars. He died in 1727 AD. Shuja-ud-din, Alivardi Khan and Mirza Muhammad followed him. Murshid Quli Khan and Alivardi Khan promoted trade and industry by establishing a stable economic system. They introduced a new revenue system by which a large part of the jagir land was converted into khalisah land . They also introduced the system of revenue farming. The first three Nawabs of Bengal were tolerant rulers. They gave equal opportunities of employment to both Hindus as well as the Muslims. They improved the communication system by constructing roads and highways, which could promote trade. But unorganised army and rising corruption among officials after the death of Siraj-Ud -Daulah became the cause of fall of Bengal.

OR

Trace the development that led to the establishment of powerful kingdom in Punjab in the 18th century.
Ans. Maharaja Ranjit Singh established a powerful sikh state in Punjab in 1780’s . He was only twelve years old when his father , MahaSingh, died. He became a powerful head of his misl at the age of sixteen. Benefiting from the unsettled conditions of Punjab, Ranjit Singh founded a powerful sikh state. He conquered Lahore in 1799. He also conquered Peshawar, Multan and Kashmir after signing a treaty with British who accepted his suzerainty in Punjab. Ranjit Singh was an able administrator. For administrative convenience, he divided his empire into four province-Lahore, Peshawar, Kashmir and Multan. Able officers under the control of the king managed these districts. His army was based on European lines. It consisted of the best soldiers. Ranjit Singh himself was an exemplary soldier, experienced commander, clever politician and able administrator. Under his rule, the scattered territory of North India was given a shape of a powerful nation.

History-1999-Set III

Q.1. Give any two reasons for the failure of the Marathas in the third battle of Panipat. ( 2 marks)
Ans. The Marathas were defeated in the third battle of Panipat by Ahmad Shah Abdali. The two main reasons for their defeat were: Firstly, the Maratha army was used to guerrilla warfare in hilly terrain. It was not accustomed to fighting in the plains. Secondly, The Marathas , had alienated the Jats , Sikhs and the Rajputs by their indiscriminate loot and plunder. This became one of the reasons for their defeat as the Jats and the Rajputs did not come to their help at the time of attack by Ahmed Shah Abdali.

Q.2 What measures were used by the British to drain away wealth from India? State any five. (5 marks)
Ans. British ruled India for more than a century. During this period, they converted a prosperous, independent and self-sufficient country into a poor, dependent and economically stagnant nation. India was converted into a colony, whose purpose of existence was to fulfil demands of the mother country i.e. Britain. This was done through draining of Indian resources and money to England. A process which is commonly known as the Indian Drain of Wealth. The high rate of land revenue collection was one of the major sources of drain of Indian wealth from an agrarian country. The servants of the East India Company also collected bribes and gifts, which amounted to huge sums of cash. The pay of the company’s servants which was paid from Indian resources was the highest in the world. The heavy export duties imposed on the Indian goods entering British market went in Britain’s treasury. On the other hand, British imports, which flooded Indian markets, were duty free. Thus, by using the above methods, Britain was able to drain the Indian wealth.

OR

History-2000-Set I

Q1. Explain any one significant feature of the Regulating Act of 1773.
Ans. The Regulating Act introduced by the British Government in 1773 was the first act, which broke the monopoly of East India Company’s administrative control over India. This Act made changes in the constitution of the Court of Directors of the Company and subjected their actions to the supervision of the British Government.

Q2. Explain the nature of Tipu sultan’s relations with Britain. What, in your view, were the main reasons of his defeat?
Ans. The most important power that emerged in South India in 18th century was Mysore under Haider Ali and his son Tipu Sultan. Sultan Tipu ,(1782-1799A.D.) was a staunch enemy of British like his father. .He was a lover of freedom. Having rejected subsidiary alliance with the Britishers, in preference to lead a life of subordination, sacrificed his life while fighting the fourth Anglo-Mysore war in 1799 in Serigapatam.
As a statesman, Sultan, more than any other 18th century Indian ruler, recognized to the full extent the threat that the English posed to South India as well as to other Indian powers. With an objective of seeking help, Tipu sent his ambassadors to France, Turkey, Iran and Arab states. He organized his army on European style. He also made an effort to build a modern navy.
Though, Tipu sultan was recklessly brave and, as a commander, brilliant. He was, however, hasty in action and unstable in nature. He also lacked political foresight, which became the main cause of his defeat. According to Col.Wilkes, “In the estimation of character, Haider Ali rarely made error while Tipu was rarely right.”Instead of seeking help from the neighboring Indian states of Marathas and Nizams, he made efforts to seek help from distant countries of France, Turkey, and Iran. . As a general also his war strategies were weak. In preference to cavalry, he paid much attention towards infantry and fortification. Hence, the pace of his army was slow and his war strategy instead of becoming aggressive became defensive.

OR

Q Why did the Portuguese fail to expand in India? Explain.
Ans. In 1498, Vasco Da Gama of Portugal discovered a new sea route from Europe to India, which was to witness a new era in European trade relations with India. Under the viceroyalty of Alfonso d’ Albuquerque, who captured Goa in 1510A.D. , The Portuguese were the first to establish their domination over the entire Asian coast.

Inspite of their barbaric behavior, which included piracy, raids and mindless conversions of Indians to christianity, the Portuguese survived in India for a century because they enjoyed control over the high seas but in the latter half of the 16th century, Portuguese lost their trading monopoly to the English, Dutch and the French .The new European powers, with well equipped army and strong government support were easily able to evacuate small trading posts established by the Portuguese.

The incompetent successors of Albuquerque failed to preserve Portuguese empire in India.The raids and piracies conducted by them made them unpopular with Indian rulers who preferred the sophisticated and diplomatic behavior of the British and the French.
The discovery of Brazil diverted many Portuguese to this new trading venture with very few traders maintaining trade relations with India.

History-2000-Set II

Q1. Explain one significant feature of the Pitts India Act.(2marks)
Ans.The Pitts India Act was passed by the British Prime Minister ,William Pitt.in 1784 AD in order to remove the shortcomings of the Regulating act of 1773 and to improve the administration of the East India company. Through Pitts Act ,the powers of the governor-general were enhanced considerably .Also , the commercial arrangements of the company was in the hands of the directors . They could now dismiss British officials posted in India.

Q 2. Critically analyze the impact of the British policy of the Free trade in India in early 19th century.(5marks)
Ans.The commercial policy of Britain was largely influenced by its imperialistic regime in India. During the second half of the 18th century and early 19th century Britain underwent profound social and economic transformation due to the Industrial Revolution and the British industry developed and expanded rapidly on the basis of modern machines,factory system and capitalism .Britain had had also captured and monopolized many foreign markets.by means of colonialism. It now had a strong industrial class whose interests were exporting its manufactured goods to vast markets provided in form of the colonies.
Thus ,the government of Britain , in 19th century followed a policy of ‘free trade’ or unrestricted entry of British goods . The Indian handicrafts were now exposed to the fierce and unequal competition of machine made products of Britain and face extinction. India had to admit British goods free or at minimum tariff rates . The Indian handmade goods were unable to compete with much cheaper machine made foreign products.
The Indian products, which could still compete, with British products were subjected to heavy duty. The duties on some imports going as high as 400 percent which led to falling of Indian export market.
In short, the British commercial policy was guide by the needs of the British industry with the main aim of transforming India into a consumer of British manufactures and a supplier of raw material.

History-2000-Set III

Q.1. Explain any one feature of Charter Act of 1833.
Ans 1. The Charter Act of 1833 abolished the trading monopoly of the East India Company in India but the Indian territories, which it owned and the revenue of these territories was left with the company. Thus, this Act changed a trading company into a political power.

Q.2. How was the royotwary system different from the permanent settlement? Why was it introduced?
Ans. The ryotwari system was a system of revenue collection introduced by the Britishers in whom the government did not act through any intermediary or zamindar but maintained direct contact with the ‘ryot’ or the peasant. This system was introduced in Madras and Bombay.The rent collected in this system were so high that more often than not he was gripped in the clutches of the money lender.
Permanent settlement was different from ryotwary settlement as the zamindars were considered owners of the land which made the plight of the peasantry quite miserable as now they were left at the mercy of the zamindar. The British profited from this settlement as the zamindars now took special interest in land to increase the production as the land now belonged to them .
OR
Q. What were the changes introduced by Lord Cornwallis in the company’s administration in India? What was their impact?
Ans. Lord cornwallis became the governor general (1786-93) and commander –in chief of Indian army in India.He is better known in India because of the administrative and land reforms which he introduced. He increased the salaries of the servants so that they could resist temptations. He also made strict rules to control bribery and private trade. Cornwallis seperated the functions of the collectors and the district judge which were earlier merged. The collectors were to be responsible for the revenue collection and the district judges were to now supervise the work of judicial courts.
Lord Cornwallis introduced the system of permanent settlement in1793 A.D in Bihar and Bengal to increase the revenue of the company from Indian agriculture. According to this settlement, the peasant were made the owners of the land and had to give 10%to the government from the total production of the land. If any zamindar failed to fulfill these conditions he was ousted from the land and the English did not hesitate in putting his land on auction.
By conferring the ownership right of the land to the zamindars , Lord Cornwallis was able to create a class of staunch loyalist in form of these zamindars. Knowing that they had permanent hold over their land, the zamindars took special interest in its improvement and thus the company was able to make higher profits in form of the collection of the land revenue.

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