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Political Science-1996-Set I

Q1. Define Law. (2 marks)
Ans. The word Law comes from the old teutonic route ‘lag’ whihc means to lay, to place, to set So it is something laid down or set. However, it would be more appropriate to define law as a set of generally accepted rules and regulations governing inter-relationships in human society seeking to create order and balanced development of all laws may be natural or positive, national or international, constitutional or ordinary, civil or criminal and public or private.

Q2. What do you under stand by the theory of surplus value?
(2 marks)

Ans. The theory of surplus value is the corner stone of the Marxian economic theory. According to this theory, labour is the source of the value of a commodity. The value of a commodity is determined by the amount of necessary labour time spent on it. Marx defines a commodity as conceiled labour and value as crystalised labour. The capitalist produces a commodity by the application of his labour to machinery and raw material. The commodity then commands a certain market value. The wages which are paid to the worker bear no proportion to the price which the commodity fetches. The difference between the value of the commodity and the wages paid to the worker constitutes the profit or the surplus. The surplus value is appropriated by the capitalist which according to marx ought to have gone to labourers. This, says marx, is pure and simple exploitation.

Q3. What did Gandhiji mean by Ahimsa? (2 marks)
Ans. Gandhiji’s greatest contribution to politics in particular and life in general was his teaching and practice of Ahimsa. Negatively, Ahimsa means refraining from causing pain. On the positive side, Ahimsa is co-terminous with the christian principle of love. However, it does not mean meek submission to the will of the evil doer. It is sould force or truth force. It means resistance to evil with all the moral and spiritual force that a person can command.

Q4. Give any two points of difference between the Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles. (2 marks)
Ans. The directive principles differ from fundamental rights in these respects:-
(a) The Fundamental Rights are justiciable and the Supreme Court and the High Courts have powers to issue orders or writs for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights. Directive Principles, on the other hand, confer no legal rights and create no legal remedies.

(b) The Fundamental Rights are intended to foster the ideal of a political democracy. IN order that the democractic principle may work effectively, the citizens require protection of their life and full opportunity to assemble and express their opinion regarding matters of generla interest. Fundamental Rights are primarily aimed at securing these freedoms to the citizens. The Directive Principles indicate as to what our economic ideal or social order should be.

Political Science-1996-Set I

Q1. Define Law. (2 marks)
Ans. The word Law comes from the old teutonic route ‘lag’ whihc means to lay, to place, to set So it is something laid down or set. However, it would be more appropriate to define law as a set of generally accepted rules and regulations governing inter-relationships in human society seeking to create order and balanced development of all laws may be natural or positive, national or international, constitutional or ordinary, civil or criminal and public or private.

Q2. What do you under stand by the theory of surplus value?
(2 marks)

Ans. The theory of surplus value is the corner stone of the Marxian economic theory. According to this theory, labour is the source of the value of a commodity. The value of a commodity is determined by the amount of necessary labour time spent on it. Marx defines a commodity as conceiled labour and value as crystalised labour. The capitalist produces a commodity by the application of his labour to machinery and raw material. The commodity then commands a certain market value. The wages which are paid to the worker bear no proportion to the price which the commodity fetches. The difference between the value of the commodity and the wages paid to the worker constitutes the profit or the surplus. The surplus value is appropriated by the capitalist which according to marx ought to have gone to labourers. This, says marx, is pure and simple exploitation.

Q3. What did Gandhiji mean by Ahimsa? (2 marks)
Ans. Gandhiji’s greatest contribution to politics in particular and life in general was his teaching and practice of Ahimsa. Negatively, Ahimsa means refraining from causing pain. On the positive side, Ahimsa is co-terminous with the christian principle of love. However, it does not mean meek submission to the will of the evil doer. It is sould force or truth force. It means resistance to evil with all the moral and spiritual force that a person can command.

Q4. Give any two points of difference between the Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles. (2 marks)
Ans. The directive principles differ from fundamental rights in these respects:-
(a) The Fundamental Rights are justiciable and the Supreme Court and the High Courts have powers to issue orders or writs for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights. Directive Principles, on the other hand, confer no legal rights and create no legal remedies.

(b) The Fundamental Rights are intended to foster the ideal of a political democracy. IN order that the democractic principle may work effectively, the citizens require protection of their life and full opportunity to assemble and express their opinion regarding matters of generla interest. Fundamental Rights are primarily aimed at securing these freedoms to the citizens. The Directive Principles indicate as to what our economic ideal or social order should be.

Political Science-1996-Set II

(Only those questions different from set I have been answered here)

Q1. What is meant by economic justice? (2 marks)
Ans. Economic justice means that the resources of the country should be distributed in a just manner and should be utilized for the benefit of the maximum number of people. The wealth of the country and the means of production should not be concentrated in a few hands. The kimportant elements of Economic Justice are – a decent living wage, public assistance in certain cases, equal pay for equal work and right to property (with its limitations).

Q3. What do you understand by class struggle”? (2 marks)
Ans. The history of all hitherto existing soceities, according to marx, is the history of class struggle. He points out that at every stage of history, mankind is divided into two classes the exploiters and the exploited. The interests of both these classes are hostile to each other. The owners of the means of production exploit the labour of the workers for some period but very soon the means of production undergo a revolutionary change. New inventions are made, improved technology is introduced and the existing production relations are rendered unsuitable. The exploited class is hard pressed, the class struggle is intensified, a revolution takes place and a new social order with a more equitable relations among the people is established.

Q8. Name any two agencies that influence in the formation of public opinion. (2 marks)
Ans. There are fomal and informal processes in a society which mould public opinion. (a) Press : Newspapers with their daily dissemination of news, facts and information, together with editorial comments, views of analysts and experts, leaders and readers, provide a daily diet for the formation of public opinion.

(b) Political Parties: Since parties are interested in capturing political power, they focus attention on all the major issues and problems faced by the citizens, the society and the state. They seek to rally people to their side by canvassing their point of view, encouraging them for popular action, motivating them for greater involvement in public affairs and mobilising them for political and electoral participation.

Political Science-1996-Set III

(Only those questions different from set I and set II have been answered here.)

Q1. Mention any two sources of law. (2 marks)
Ans. Sources of law may include:-
(a) CUSTOMS – In every community the earliest form of law is traceable in the well established practices of the people. These practices developed because of the utility inherent in them. In due course a practice becomes a uage which after sufficient standing hardens into a custom. e.g. thecommon law of England consists mainly of customs accepted by courts of law.

(b) LEGISLATION – It means placing of a specific rule on the statute book of the land. It reflects the will of the state as determined by the law making organs. Due to the codification of law, uncertainities and ambiguities have been sufficiently narrowed down.

Q28. Write an essay on liberalism. (6 marks)
Ans. Liberalism is a doctrine emerged out of the Enlightenment, the Glorious Revolution in England and the French revolution. From the enlightenment emerged the view that there are no moral goals which we know for certain to be absolutely right and therefore to impose any one way of life on the citizen of a state is wrong. From the Glorious Revolution emerged the view that the divine right of any kind of rule could not be justified and from the French Revolution the claim that the individual liberty is so sacred that no authority can violate it.

However, liberalism remained the philosophy of the capitalist classes and its objective is to provide a congenial atmosphere for the development of capitalism. It talks about minimial state interference in economy. Even if the state is assigned certain welfare functions, the objective is not to give justice to the workers but they are used for appeasing the revolutionary working class.

Though positive liberalism regards the state as a moral and welfare institution, if at certain stage, its welfare measures fail in satisfying the working class and the working class threatens the capitalist socio-economic system, then the state sheds off its democratic posture and emerges in its naked form. This increases the threat of totalitarianism.

Liberalism maintains that political power (state) can regulate economic power (capitalist class) in the overall interest and welfare of society. But this is practically untrue because it is the economic power which controls the political power.

Moreover, positive liberalism enthrusts the state with the responsibility of creating conditions necessary for the fulfilment of individuals liberty. It maintains that the state is the gaurdian of collective welfare. But this view is not correct as the question of liberty is closely associated with the socio-economic system and the conditions for the fulfilment of liberty cannot be established by any agency in a capitalist system.

Liberalism also maintains that through progressive taxation, income redistribution policies and economic measures of the state, economic equality can be achieved but the fact is that without abolishing private property in a class divided society equality will be unrealistic.

The marxist critique of liberalism is that social change in a class divided society can not be brought about by social reforms and incremental changes but by the intensification of class- struggle through a revolution. During the course of development of liberalism itself, the change from fendalism to capitalism was not brought about by incremental changes but through the English, French and other revolutions. Thus liberalism rejects the scientific process of revolutionary change.

Political Science-1997-Set I

Q1. Define Law. (2 marks)
Ans. The word Law comes from the old teutonic route ‘lag’ which means to lay, to place, to set. So it is something laid down or set. However, it would be more appropriate to define law as a set of generally accepted rules and regulations governing inter-relationships in human society seeking to create order and balanced development of all laws may be natural or positive, national or international, constitutional or ordinary, civil or criminal and public or private.

Q2. What do you understand by justice? (2 marks)
Ans. The word ‘Justice’ comes from the Latin word ‘Jus’ which means ‘bondage’ or ‘to bind’. Justice lies in the satisfaction of basic needs of the people of society. It means to treat all citizens on an impartial ground. Legal justice deals with principles and procedures as laid down by the system of law prevailing in a state. Moral justice, on the other hand, deals with what is right and what is wrong. Though justice is for the general order of the society as a whole, it also protects the individual. Social justice seeks to reform society in accordance with current idea of what is right or fair eg. land reforms, prevention of discrimination and equitable distribution of national resources and wealth.

Q3. What do you mean by ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’? (2 marks)
Ans. The transitional period after the occurance of the proletarian revolutional is called the Dictatorship of the Proletariat. The power will be captured by the workers. The proletarian dictatorship will monopolise state power and shall use it as an instrument for consolidating its political victory and for the establishment of social order by redistribution the assets of capitalist and landlords and placing the means of production into the hand of the community. The basis of economy would be from each according to his work. The next stage will be the establishment of a classless society called communism.

Q4. What is a Welfare State? (2 marks)
Ans. Welfare state is that state which works for the happiness and prosperity of the people so that each individual can develop his personality. It means that the state must take upon itself the social responsibility of providing goods and services to weaker sections in society. The aim of the welfare state is preventive. It seeks to alter the very conditions which lead to unemployment, sickness or poverty. Thus a welfare state is expected to look after public
health, provide education, ensure right to work, right to shelter and unemployment benefits to all its citizens.

Political Science -1997- Set II

Q1. Mention any two kinds of law. (2 marks)
Ans. (a) Natural Law : – Natural laws are abstract on account of being authored by nature or some supernatural agency. The dictates of natural laws are understandable by the rational faculty of man as “written into the heart of man by the finger of God.” Natural law has its sanction in respect for or fear of some metaphysical power.

(b) National Law:- A law formulated by the sovereign authority and applicable to the people living within its territorial jurisdiction is called national law. It determines the private and public relations of the people living in a state.

Q5. Mention any two economic Directive Principles. (2 marks)
Ans. Directive Principles relating to economic justice are as follows:-

(a) Article 39 – observes that the state shall direct its policy towards securing (a) adequate means of livelihood to all citizens (b) a proper distribution of material resources of the community for the common good. (c) The prevention of concentration of wealth to the common detriment (d) Equal pay for equal work for both men and women, (e) Protection of the strength and health of workers and avoiding circumstances which force citizens to enter advocations unsuited to their age or strength.

(b) Article 41 – lays down that effective steps should be taken to make right to work a reality. Public assistance should be extended in case of unemployment, old age and sickness.

Q9. What do you know about Gram Sabha? (2 marks)
Ans. Gram Sabha is recognised as the basic unit of the Panchayati Raj System operating at the village level. The Gram Sabha is the general body of the local citizens comprising all the eligible voters in the village or group of villages over which the Gram Panchayat as the executive committee exercise its jurisdiction. It is expected to meet twice a year, and work as the watch-dog of the Gram Panchayat. Its main functions include – to approve the administrative report of the Gram Panchayat; to approve the annual budget, and the accounts and audit report of the preceding year; approve the developmental programmes; consider and approve taxation proposal; and elect members of the Gram Panchayat.

Political Science-1998-[ Set I ]

Q1. Mention any two points of criticism of Fascism. (2 marks)
Ans. Fascism can be criticised on the following grounds:-
(a) Fascism supported the idea of a totalitarian state. It was anti-humanitarian and sought to destroy some of the most cherished human values – rights and interests, freedom and equality in the name of the supremacy of the nation state.

(b) Fascism encourages violence and terror and has a love for war. War is not regarded as inhuman by the fascists – they regard it as an essential exercise to keep the states healthy and fit. They, thus, disregarded the path of peace as well as international laws. This contributed to the origin of the second World War.

Q2. What is meant by coercive power of the state? Is it unlimited?
(2 marks)

Ans. Coercive power of the state means the power that the state possesses to punish those individuals who do not abide by its laws. However this power of the state is not unlimited. There are many groups and associations within the society which act as limitations on the exercise of the state’s powers. Moreover, the likelihood of a revolt in society is also to be kept in mind by those who are enthrusted with the task of ruling public opinion.

Q3. Mention any two Socialist Directive Principles of state policy. (1+1=2 marks)
Ans. The Indian state is based on certain socialist principles which are evident in the Directive Principles of state policy. These are:-
(a) Article 39 – observes that the state shall direct its policy towards securing (a) adequate means of livelihood to all citizens (b) a proper distribution of material resources of the community for the common good (c) The prevention of concentration of wealth to the common detriment (d) Equal pay for equal work for both men and women.

(b) Article 41 – lays down that effective steps should be taken to make the right to work a reality. It also stresses that education should be provided to all concerned. Public assistance should be extended in case of unemployment, old age and sickness.

Q4. What do you mean by Natural rights? Mention any one such right. (1+1=2 marks)
Ans. Liberals like Locke, have propounded the theory of Natural rights. Natural rights according to them are those rights which are inherent in man and cannot be taken away from him. These rights precede the state and are an obligation on the state. For eg., the right to life is a natural right of a human being.

Political Science-1999-[ Set- II ]

Q 1. Define Justice. (2 marks)
Ans 1. The word ‘Justice’ comes from the Latin word ‘Jus’ which means ‘bondage’ or ‘to bind’. Justice lies in the satisfaction of basic needs of the people of society. It means to treat all citizens on an impartial ground. Legal justice deals with principles and procedures as laid down by the system of
law prevailing in a state. Moral justice, on the other hand, deals with what is right and what is wrong.Though justice is for the general order of the society as a whole, it also protects the individual. Social justice seeks to reform society in accordance with current idea of what is right or fair.
For example: land reforms, prevention of discrimination and equitable distribution of national resources and wealth.

Q 2. Mention any two kinds of Equality. (1+1 marks)
Ans 2. Equality is not an absolute term, rather it is a relative term.

1. POLITICAL EQUALITY :- Equality of share for all in the management of public affairs – Universal adult suffrage, open recruitment to public offices, free and fair periodic elections, free press and mass media agencies. Political equality provides the basis of democracy.

2. ECONOMIC EQUALITY :- It means non-concentration of national wealth in few hands.Equality of proportions, private sector under social control, provision of special safeguards to protect the interest of the weaker sections of the community and guarantee of specific civil amenities.

Q 3. What do you understand by Marxism? (2 marks)
Ans 3.Marxism was a theory propounded by Marx who understood the havoc which early industrialization had brought about. The capitalist order according to him divided the society into two classes who were always in conflict with each other. The inherent fallacies in capitalism would bring about its
downfall. The workers will rise up and through a revolution bring about a socialist order wherein each will work according to his capacity and will get according to his work. This will finally lead to a classless society where the state will wither away called communism.

Political Science-1999-[ Set- I ]

Q 1. Mention any two sources of law(2 marks).
Ans 1. Sources of law may include:-

(a) CUSTOMS – In every community the earliest form of law is traceable in the well established practices of the people. These practices developed because of the utility inherent in them. In due course a practice becomes a uage which after sufficient standing hardens into a custom. e.g. the common law of England consists mainly of customs accepted by courts of law.

(b) LEGISLATION – It means placing of a specific rule on the statute book of the land. It reflects the will of the state as determined by the law making organs. Due to the codification of law, uncertainities and ambiguities have been sufficiently narrowed down.

Q 2. What do you understand by Constitutional Law? (2 marks)
Ans 2. Constitutional Law includes all rules which directly or indirectly affect the distribution or the exercise of power in the state and which are enforced by the courts. Constitutional Law defines the organisation of the state, determines the functions exercised by different departments of government, and establishes the relationship between the rulers and the ruled. It may be either written or unwritten. It may be the result of the deliberate effort of
a body – like the Constituent Assembly or it may be the product of history and may consist of customs, usages and judicial decisions, as in Britain.

Q 3. What is the meaning of a welfare state? (2 marks)
Ans 3. Welfare state is that state which works for the happiness and prosperity of the people so that each individual can develop his personality. It means that the state must take upon itself the social responsibility of providing goods and services to weaker sections in society.
The aim of the welfare state is preventive. It seeks to alter the very conditions which lead to unemployment, sickness or poverty. Thus a welfare state is expected to look after public health, provide education, ensure right to work, right to shelter and unemployment benefits to all its citizens.

Q 4. What is the anarchist view of state activitiy? (2 marks)
Ans 4. Anarchism is the doctrine that political authority, in any of its forms, is unnecessary and undesirable. The state is regarded as the embodiment of force employed in the government of the community. Liberty is supreme in the Anarchist creed, but it is sought by abolishing the state and all its institutions exercising forcible control over the individuals. Proudhan was the author of the term anarchy. He was against the state, since it had evolved out of the system of private property & supported in equities in society.

Political Science : 2000 : Set II

Q.1 What do you understand by “Dictatorship of the Proletariat’?
Ans.1 The transitional period after the occurance of the proletarian revolutional is called the Dictatorship of the Proletariat. The power will be captured by the workers. The proletarian dictatorship will monopolise state power and shall use it as an instrument for consolidating its political victory and for the establishment of social order by redistribution the assets of capitalist and landlords and placing the means of production into the hand of the community. The basis of economy would be from each according to his work. The next stage will be the establishment of a classless society called communism.

Q.2 Briefly explain the idealist concept of state action ?
Ans.2 The idealist concept of state action was given by T.H. Green . It means that the state is a moral institution, it creates those circumstances in men’s life by which every man can develop his personality. The state has a negative moral function of removing the obstacles which prevent them from making themselves better. Punishment is supposed to be a counter force against against the brutal force of the culprit. The state is expected to further the cause of peace and should avoid wars.

Q.3 Describe any two Directive Principles related to the welfare of women in India?
Ans.3 The Directive principles lay down some 19 objectives enjoining the state to undertake within its means a number of welfare measures. Directives related to the welfare of women in India are:

(1) Article 39 [d] :- Directs the statepolicy towards securing equal pay for equal wok for both men and women . It thus seeks to end the age-old discrimination between men and women and gives her an equal
footing with a man.
(2) Article 42 :- Lays down that the state shall make provisions for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.
Thus the maternity period will no longer be considered as an hinderance in a women’s career when she will get a relief benefit during that period.

Q.4 “Rights imply duties” comment?
Ans.4 Rights and duties are two faces of the same coin. The rights are considered to be essential for the expansion of human personality. They offer the individual sufficient scope for free action and thus prepare ground for self – development. However these rights become meaningless in the absence of duties.

Prof. Laski lays down a four – fold connection between rights and duties.

1. My right implies your duty : e.g. my right to life implies that others should give protection and security to my life.

2. My right implies my duty to admit a similer right of others :- e.g. my right to speech implies that it is my duty to see that I may not be a hinderance in the free exercise of this right by others.

3. I Should exercise my right to promote social good :- A person should not abuse/misuse the rights given to him by the state or else the state will be justified in depriving the person of his right .

4.Since the state guarantees and maintains my rights, I have the duty to support the state.
Thus rights without duties have no meaning and duties without rights appear senseless.

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