Section – A : History
Q1.What is referred to as ‘paper partition’ in the colonisation of Africa? (2)
Ans. 1 Different European powers entered into agreements/treaties often fraudulent and bogus) with the rulers of African States and brought their states as their `Protectorates’ with a promise to support them against their rivals. Through these treaties, they obtained recognition of other European powers and the process of occupation began without any hindrance from them. This position is referred to as `paper partition’ as the actual partition took much longer and was accomplished by the use of the superior military might of the European Powers to suppress the resistance by the Africans.
Q 2.Name the political parties of Russia that represented the industrial workers. How did they differ in heir policies? (2)
Ans. 2 The industrial workers of Russia were mainly represented through the `Bolsheviks’ and the `Mensheviks’ . The Bolsheviks were the majority group of the workers who believed in the revolutionary methods for bringing about changes in the society and the state. In their opinion, the parliamentary methods would not be able to bring about any changes in a country like Russia where no democratic rights existed and where there was no parliament. On the other hand, Mensheviks believed in parliamentary methods and participation in elections for running the state and the society. They were in he minority. They favoured parties as were existing in France and Germany which took part in elections to the legislature of their countries.
Q 3.Which were the countries that signed the Anti-comintern pact? Why was this Pact signed? (2)
Ans. 3 Anti-Comintern pact was signed between Germany, Italy and Japan in 1937 with an aim to check the expansion of communism in the world. They also pledged to follow an aggressive policy for the expansion of territories.