Section `A’ – History
Q 1. What is meant by ‘Civilising Mission’? (2)
Ans. 1 Many Europeans believed that they were destined to bring civilisation to the backward people of the world. The famous English writer, Rudyard Kipling, asked his countrymen to shoulder what he called `The white man’s burden’. Joules Ferry, in France, said, `Superior races have the duty of civilising the inferior races’. Thus, they thought themselves on being on a civilising mission.
Q 2. What two conditions, according to Lenin, were necessary to make the Russian revolution a success? (2)
Ans. 2 To make the Russian revolution a success, Lenin believed that people should :-
(i) Fully understand the revolution and be ready to sacrifice their lives for it.
(ii) The existing government should be in a state of crises to make it possible for it to be overthrown.
Q 3. Which were the countries that followed the policy of appeasement? Why did they follow this policy? (2)
Ans. 3 Britain and France were the two main countries which followed the policy of appeasement. Since the success of the Russian Revolution, the western countries, being capitalist themselves, had been haunted by the danger of communism. Germany, Italy and Japan had claimed that they were fighting against communism. As such the western countries thought that the fascist countries would rid them of the danger of communism, so they followed the policy of appeasement.