Section – A : History
Q 1. What is meant by the ‘cutting of the Chinese Melon’? (2)
Ans. 1 The term ‘cutting of the Chinese Melon’ means the division of China into different spheres of influence. By advancing loans to China the four European powers – France, Britain, Russia and Germany – divided China into their respective spheres of influence. Britain established her influence over the Yangtze Valley and got Wei-Hai-Wei in addition to Hong Kong. France got control of Kwangchow Bay and extensive rights in three Southern provinces of China. Germany received Kiaochow Bay and exclusive rights in Shantung and the Hwang-Ho Valley. Russia got the Liatung Peninsula and the exclusive rights to build roads in Manchuria.
Q 2. What was the condition of the non-Russian minorities in Russia before the Russian revolution ? (2)
Ans. 2 The Non-Russian nationalities were forcibly included in the Russian territory due to the Czar’s policy of expansion. Russian culture and Russian language was imposed on them. They were, however, not given a right to vote or self-determination.
Q 5. Mention the reasons for conflict in the Balkan Region? (4)
Ans. 5 Till the early 19th century the entire Balkan Peninsula was a part of the Ottoman Empire. However, by early 20th Century, the Ottoman rule over the Balkans had ended Serbia, Bulgaria, and Albania had emerged as independent states. Serbia had emerged as a Champion of the Slav people, many of whom inhabited the Austro-Hungarian empire. She depended on Russia’s support in her ambition to create Greater Serbia which would include the Ottoman provinces of Bosnia and Herzgovina that were under Austria – Hungary and the Southern areas of Austria – Hungary which were inhabited by the Slav people. She encouraged discontent in these areas and organised conspiracies against Austria – Hungary. This region became the source of increasing tensions in Europe and finally provided the incident which brought about the First World War. In 1908, Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzgovina which had been placed under her administrative control. Serbia wanted Russia to go to war with Austria-Hungary in the event of a war restrained Russia. There was further intensification of bitterness in Serbia against Austria – Hungary as a result of the Balkan wars in 1912-13. Some of the Balkan states, including Serbia, had united, with Russian support, to conquer Macedonia from the Ottomans. However, after the Ottomans had been defeated, Austria-Hungary, with the support of Britain and Germany, succeeded in making Albania an independent state rather than a part of Serbia which Serbia had hoped.