Political Science -1997- Set II

Q1. Mention any two kinds of law. (2 marks)
Ans. (a) Natural Law : – Natural laws are abstract on account of being authored by nature or some supernatural agency. The dictates of natural laws are understandable by the rational faculty of man as “written into the heart of man by the finger of God.” Natural law has its sanction in respect for or fear of some metaphysical power.

(b) National Law:- A law formulated by the sovereign authority and applicable to the people living within its territorial jurisdiction is called national law. It determines the private and public relations of the people living in a state.

Q5. Mention any two economic Directive Principles. (2 marks)
Ans. Directive Principles relating to economic justice are as follows:-

(a) Article 39 – observes that the state shall direct its policy towards securing (a) adequate means of livelihood to all citizens (b) a proper distribution of material resources of the community for the common good. (c) The prevention of concentration of wealth to the common detriment (d) Equal pay for equal work for both men and women, (e) Protection of the strength and health of workers and avoiding circumstances which force citizens to enter advocations unsuited to their age or strength.

(b) Article 41 – lays down that effective steps should be taken to make right to work a reality. Public assistance should be extended in case of unemployment, old age and sickness.

Q9. What do you know about Gram Sabha? (2 marks)
Ans. Gram Sabha is recognised as the basic unit of the Panchayati Raj System operating at the village level. The Gram Sabha is the general body of the local citizens comprising all the eligible voters in the village or group of villages over which the Gram Panchayat as the executive committee exercise its jurisdiction. It is expected to meet twice a year, and work as the watch-dog of the Gram Panchayat. Its main functions include – to approve the administrative report of the Gram Panchayat; to approve the annual budget, and the accounts and audit report of the preceding year; approve the developmental programmes; consider and approve taxation proposal; and elect members of the Gram Panchayat.

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