Political Science-1998-[ Set I ]

Q1. Mention any two points of criticism of Fascism. (2 marks)
Ans. Fascism can be criticised on the following grounds:-
(a) Fascism supported the idea of a totalitarian state. It was anti-humanitarian and sought to destroy some of the most cherished human values – rights and interests, freedom and equality in the name of the supremacy of the nation state.

(b) Fascism encourages violence and terror and has a love for war. War is not regarded as inhuman by the fascists – they regard it as an essential exercise to keep the states healthy and fit. They, thus, disregarded the path of peace as well as international laws. This contributed to the origin of the second World War.

Q2. What is meant by coercive power of the state? Is it unlimited?
(2 marks)

Ans. Coercive power of the state means the power that the state possesses to punish those individuals who do not abide by its laws. However this power of the state is not unlimited. There are many groups and associations within the society which act as limitations on the exercise of the state’s powers. Moreover, the likelihood of a revolt in society is also to be kept in mind by those who are enthrusted with the task of ruling public opinion.

Q3. Mention any two Socialist Directive Principles of state policy. (1+1=2 marks)
Ans. The Indian state is based on certain socialist principles which are evident in the Directive Principles of state policy. These are:-
(a) Article 39 – observes that the state shall direct its policy towards securing (a) adequate means of livelihood to all citizens (b) a proper distribution of material resources of the community for the common good (c) The prevention of concentration of wealth to the common detriment (d) Equal pay for equal work for both men and women.

(b) Article 41 – lays down that effective steps should be taken to make the right to work a reality. It also stresses that education should be provided to all concerned. Public assistance should be extended in case of unemployment, old age and sickness.

Q4. What do you mean by Natural rights? Mention any one such right. (1+1=2 marks)
Ans. Liberals like Locke, have propounded the theory of Natural rights. Natural rights according to them are those rights which are inherent in man and cannot be taken away from him. These rights precede the state and are an obligation on the state. For eg., the right to life is a natural right of a human being.

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