History-1996-Set III

Q.2. Explain one major step taken by the East India Company to drain the wealth from Bengal after the Battle of Plassey. (2 marks)
Ans. The Battle of Plassey paved way for the drain of wealth from Bengal to Britain. The East India Company started controlling the economic resources of the rich province of the rich province of Bengal after the defeat of the Nawab. By acquiring the Diwani of Bengal, the company obtained the right to collect revenue against a fixed amount to be given to the Nawab. The Company’s servants amassed unaccountable wealth in form of gifts and bribes from the Nawab of Bengal.

Q.6. Describe the contribution of Raja Rammohan Roy in the field of religious reforms. (5 marks)
Ans. Raja Rammohan Roy was an important social reformer of 19th century . He is rightly called as the great leader of Modern India. He worked hard for bringing reforms in social, religious, intellectual and political sphere. He represented a synthesis of the thought of the east and the west. He is associated with various organizations related to upliftment of the society. RajaRammohan Roy founded the Atmiya Sabha in 1814 in Calcutta. In 1829, he founded a new religious society, the Brahma Sabha, later known as the Brahmo Samaj, whose purpose was to purify Hinduism and to preach monotheism or belief in one God. The new society was to be based on the pillars of reason and Vedas. The Samaj laid emphasis on human dignity, opposed idol worship and criticized such social issues as the practice of sati. There was hardly any aspect of nation building, which he left untouched but the best example of his life -long crusade against social evil was the historic agitation he organized against the inhuman practice of sati.


Explain the religious ideas of Swami Dayanand Saraswati.
Ans. Swami Dayanad Saraswati founded the Arya Samaj in 1875 to reform the Hindu religion. He believed that the selfish and ignorant priests had perverted Hindu religion with the aid of the Puranas which, he said, were full of false teachings. He propagated that the Vedas were infallible, being the inspired word of God , and as a fount of all knowledge. This total dependence on Vedas and their infallibility gave his teachings an orthodox coloring, for infallibility meant that human reason was not to be the final deciding factor. However, his approach had a rationalist aspect , because the Vedas, though revealed, were to be rationally interpreted by him and others . Dayanand Sraswati opposed Hindu orthodoxy. He was opposed to idolatory, ritual and priesthood, and particularly to the prevalent caste practices and popular Hinduism as preached by the Brahmins. He also favored the study of Western Sciences.

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