History-1997-Set II

Q. 1 Mention any two humanitarian measures adopted by the British government before 1858. ( 2 marks)
Ans. The abolition of the social practice of sati and the introduction of western education by Lord Macaulay were the two important humanitarian measures adopted by the British government before 1858. These humanitarian measures were attacked by the orthodox Indian sections who saw these measures as an insult to Indian culture and tradition.

Q. 2 Describe the political developments which enabled the English and the French companies in the political affairs of India. ( 5 marks)
Ans. The English East India Company was not alone in putting forward commercial and political claims in India. While it was able to eliminate the Dutch and the Portuguese from South India by the end of 17th century, France had appeared as a new rival. For nearly twenty years from 1744 to 1763 AD the French and the British indulged in bitter warfare for control over the trade, wealth and territory of India. This struggle is famous by the name of the Three Carnatic Wars. The first Carnatic war took place between 1746 -1748 AD, when both the French and the English fought to gain monopoly over Indian trade and territory.

The war that was fought between these two rivals in Europe was now extended in India. The British conquered Madras and the French tried to increase their influence in other parts of South. The second Carnatic war took place from 1749 to 1754 AD. A civil war broke out in south between Nasir Jung and Muzaffar Jung after the death of Nizam of Hydrabad. Also, Chanda sahib began to conspire against the Nawab Anwaruddin in Carnatic. The ambitious French officer Dupleix seized this opportunity to conclude a secret treaty with Chanda sahib and Muzaffar Jang to help them with his well-trained French forces. The three allies soon defeated both, Nasir Jang and Nawab Anwauddin. In return the French received many gifts as well as trading monopoly in South. French influence, they intrigued with Nasir Jang and Muhammad Ali (son of deposed Nawab Anwaruddin) . Muhammad Ali, with the support of British army, attacked Arcot, the capital of Carnatic.

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