Political Science-1999-[ Set- II ]

Q 1. Define Justice. (2 marks)
Ans 1. The word ‘Justice’ comes from the Latin word ‘Jus’ which means ‘bondage’ or ‘to bind’. Justice lies in the satisfaction of basic needs of the people of society. It means to treat all citizens on an impartial ground. Legal justice deals with principles and procedures as laid down by the system of
law prevailing in a state. Moral justice, on the other hand, deals with what is right and what is wrong.Though justice is for the general order of the society as a whole, it also protects the individual. Social justice seeks to reform society in accordance with current idea of what is right or fair.
For example: land reforms, prevention of discrimination and equitable distribution of national resources and wealth.

Q 2. Mention any two kinds of Equality. (1+1 marks)
Ans 2. Equality is not an absolute term, rather it is a relative term.

1. POLITICAL EQUALITY :- Equality of share for all in the management of public affairs – Universal adult suffrage, open recruitment to public offices, free and fair periodic elections, free press and mass media agencies. Political equality provides the basis of democracy.

2. ECONOMIC EQUALITY :- It means non-concentration of national wealth in few hands.Equality of proportions, private sector under social control, provision of special safeguards to protect the interest of the weaker sections of the community and guarantee of specific civil amenities.

Q 3. What do you understand by Marxism? (2 marks)
Ans 3.Marxism was a theory propounded by Marx who understood the havoc which early industrialization had brought about. The capitalist order according to him divided the society into two classes who were always in conflict with each other. The inherent fallacies in capitalism would bring about its
downfall. The workers will rise up and through a revolution bring about a socialist order wherein each will work according to his capacity and will get according to his work. This will finally lead to a classless society where the state will wither away called communism.

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