History-1998 -Set III

MODERN INDIA

Q.1. Mention any two measures adopted by Murshid Quli Khan to improve the finances of Bengal. (2 marks)
Ans. Murshid Quli Khan was an able ruler. He reorganised the finances of Bengal by transferring large parts of the jagir lands into khalisah or state land. This was done through introduction of revenue farming and carrying out new revenue settlements. The Nawab recruited revenue farmers and officials from local zamindars and merchant bankers. He also granted loans to poor cultivators to enable them to pay the revenue in time.

Q.3. Mention the different ways in which the wealth of Bengal was drained to Britain after the battle of Plassey. (5 marks)
Ans. The battle of Plassey was fought between the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-daulah and the British army on June 23, 1757. This battle was of immense historical importance as it paved way for the British mastery of Bengal and eventually of the whole of India. The rich revenues of Bengal enabled the English to organise a strong army and meet the cost of the conquest of the rest of the country. Their victory over Bengal enabled the company’s servants to amass untold wealth at the cost of the helpless people of Bengal. Infact,the treasury of Bengal was soon emptied in fulfilling the demands of the British East India Company. The directors of the company ordered that the Bengal should pay the expenses of the Bombay and the Madras presidency and purchase out of its revenue all the company’s exports from India. In short, the battle of Plassey opened the door of rich trasury of Bengal which was emptied in British servant’s pockets.

OR

What were the main issues of social reforms taken up by Raja Rammohan Roy ? Explain any one of the issues in which he was successful in his lifetime.
Ans. Raja Rammohan Roy was an important social reformer of 19th century . He is rightly called as the great leader of Modern India. He worked hard for bringing reforms in social, religious, intellectual and political sphere. He represented a synthesis of the thought of the east and the west. He is associated with various organisations related to upliftment of the society. RajaRammohan Roy founded the Atmiya Sabha in 1814 in Calcutta. In 1829, he founded a new religious society, the Brahma Sabha, later known as the Brahmo Samaj, whose purpose was to purify Hinduism and to preach monotheism or belief in one God. The new society was to be based on the pillars of reason and vedas. The Samaj laid emphasis on human dignity, opposed idol worship and criticized such social issues as the practice of sati. There was hardly any aspect of nation building, which he left untouched but the best example of his life -long crusade against social evil was the historic agitation he organised against the inhuman practice of sati.

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