History-1999-Set I

Q.1. Mention any two social legislation’s introduced by the British in India before 1857(2 marks)

Ans. Girl infanticide was declared illegal under the reform passed by Lord Bentinck in 1829 AD This reform was followed by another reform passed under Lord Bentinck which declared the hineous practice of sati illegal in 1829 AD

Q.2. Describe the causes of the rivalries and conflicts among the European countries in India in the Eighteenth Century. How were they finally resolved?(5 marks)
Ans. Eighteenth Century was an era of new developments in science and discovery. This period witnessed the growth and expansion of Europe. Nations like Britain, Portugal, France, Italy and Germany were exploring new lands, which could be colonised and used for incurring wealth and power.

The Portuguese were the first to establish their colony in Goa in 1510. And soon the Dutch East India Company that expanded its hold on West India, establishing centres in Surat, Patna, Cochin, followed them. The English, in order to have their trade dealings with India, established the East India Company in 1600A.D. They soon ousted both the Portuguese and the Dutch. British ports were created at Surat, Ahmedabad,Broach, Bombay, Calcutta etc. The French were not far behind. They also established their trading company in 1664 AD and son after, established factories in Masulipatnam and Pondicherry. Later on, they other factories were opened at Chander Nagar, Qassim Bazar, Balassore, Mahe and Karikal. As a result of this, their confrontation with the English became inevitable. The three Carnatic wars or the Anglo French struggle for hegemony ensued from1746 till 1763 AD. They resulted in the defeat of the French and the victory of the British.

The British succeeded in retaining their hold in India and ousting the other European powers because of their better financial position. And full support of their government. Their strong army and naval fleet were able to destruct the trading posts of the Dutch and the Portuguese, who were unpopular among Indians. The British diplomacy succeeded to get the much-needed approval of the Indian rulers.

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