History-1999-Set III

Q.1. Give any two reasons for the failure of the Marathas in the third battle of Panipat. ( 2 marks)
Ans. The Marathas were defeated in the third battle of Panipat by Ahmad Shah Abdali. The two main reasons for their defeat were: Firstly, the Maratha army was used to guerrilla warfare in hilly terrain. It was not accustomed to fighting in the plains. Secondly, The Marathas , had alienated the Jats , Sikhs and the Rajputs by their indiscriminate loot and plunder. This became one of the reasons for their defeat as the Jats and the Rajputs did not come to their help at the time of attack by Ahmed Shah Abdali.

Q.2 What measures were used by the British to drain away wealth from India? State any five. (5 marks)
Ans. British ruled India for more than a century. During this period, they converted a prosperous, independent and self-sufficient country into a poor, dependent and economically stagnant nation. India was converted into a colony, whose purpose of existence was to fulfil demands of the mother country i.e. Britain. This was done through draining of Indian resources and money to England. A process which is commonly known as the Indian Drain of Wealth. The high rate of land revenue collection was one of the major sources of drain of Indian wealth from an agrarian country. The servants of the East India Company also collected bribes and gifts, which amounted to huge sums of cash. The pay of the company’s servants which was paid from Indian resources was the highest in the world. The heavy export duties imposed on the Indian goods entering British market went in Britain’s treasury. On the other hand, British imports, which flooded Indian markets, were duty free. Thus, by using the above methods, Britain was able to drain the Indian wealth.

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