History-2000-Set I

Q1. Explain any one significant feature of the Regulating Act of 1773.
Ans. The Regulating Act introduced by the British Government in 1773 was the first act, which broke the monopoly of East India Company’s administrative control over India. This Act made changes in the constitution of the Court of Directors of the Company and subjected their actions to the supervision of the British Government.

Q2. Explain the nature of Tipu sultan’s relations with Britain. What, in your view, were the main reasons of his defeat?
Ans. The most important power that emerged in South India in 18th century was Mysore under Haider Ali and his son Tipu Sultan. Sultan Tipu ,(1782-1799A.D.) was a staunch enemy of British like his father. .He was a lover of freedom. Having rejected subsidiary alliance with the Britishers, in preference to lead a life of subordination, sacrificed his life while fighting the fourth Anglo-Mysore war in 1799 in Serigapatam.
As a statesman, Sultan, more than any other 18th century Indian ruler, recognized to the full extent the threat that the English posed to South India as well as to other Indian powers. With an objective of seeking help, Tipu sent his ambassadors to France, Turkey, Iran and Arab states. He organized his army on European style. He also made an effort to build a modern navy.
Though, Tipu sultan was recklessly brave and, as a commander, brilliant. He was, however, hasty in action and unstable in nature. He also lacked political foresight, which became the main cause of his defeat. According to Col.Wilkes, “In the estimation of character, Haider Ali rarely made error while Tipu was rarely right.”Instead of seeking help from the neighboring Indian states of Marathas and Nizams, he made efforts to seek help from distant countries of France, Turkey, and Iran. . As a general also his war strategies were weak. In preference to cavalry, he paid much attention towards infantry and fortification. Hence, the pace of his army was slow and his war strategy instead of becoming aggressive became defensive.

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Q Why did the Portuguese fail to expand in India? Explain.
Ans. In 1498, Vasco Da Gama of Portugal discovered a new sea route from Europe to India, which was to witness a new era in European trade relations with India. Under the viceroyalty of Alfonso d’ Albuquerque, who captured Goa in 1510A.D. , The Portuguese were the first to establish their domination over the entire Asian coast.

Inspite of their barbaric behavior, which included piracy, raids and mindless conversions of Indians to christianity, the Portuguese survived in India for a century because they enjoyed control over the high seas but in the latter half of the 16th century, Portuguese lost their trading monopoly to the English, Dutch and the French .The new European powers, with well equipped army and strong government support were easily able to evacuate small trading posts established by the Portuguese.

The incompetent successors of Albuquerque failed to preserve Portuguese empire in India.The raids and piracies conducted by them made them unpopular with Indian rulers who preferred the sophisticated and diplomatic behavior of the British and the French.
The discovery of Brazil diverted many Portuguese to this new trading venture with very few traders maintaining trade relations with India.

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