History-2000-Set III

Q.1. Explain any one feature of Charter Act of 1833.
Ans 1. The Charter Act of 1833 abolished the trading monopoly of the East India Company in India but the Indian territories, which it owned and the revenue of these territories was left with the company. Thus, this Act changed a trading company into a political power.

Q.2. How was the royotwary system different from the permanent settlement? Why was it introduced?
Ans. The ryotwari system was a system of revenue collection introduced by the Britishers in whom the government did not act through any intermediary or zamindar but maintained direct contact with the ‘ryot’ or the peasant. This system was introduced in Madras and Bombay.The rent collected in this system were so high that more often than not he was gripped in the clutches of the money lender.
Permanent settlement was different from ryotwary settlement as the zamindars were considered owners of the land which made the plight of the peasantry quite miserable as now they were left at the mercy of the zamindar. The British profited from this settlement as the zamindars now took special interest in land to increase the production as the land now belonged to them .
OR
Q. What were the changes introduced by Lord Cornwallis in the company’s administration in India? What was their impact?
Ans. Lord cornwallis became the governor general (1786-93) and commander –in chief of Indian army in India.He is better known in India because of the administrative and land reforms which he introduced. He increased the salaries of the servants so that they could resist temptations. He also made strict rules to control bribery and private trade. Cornwallis seperated the functions of the collectors and the district judge which were earlier merged. The collectors were to be responsible for the revenue collection and the district judges were to now supervise the work of judicial courts.
Lord Cornwallis introduced the system of permanent settlement in1793 A.D in Bihar and Bengal to increase the revenue of the company from Indian agriculture. According to this settlement, the peasant were made the owners of the land and had to give 10%to the government from the total production of the land. If any zamindar failed to fulfill these conditions he was ousted from the land and the English did not hesitate in putting his land on auction.
By conferring the ownership right of the land to the zamindars , Lord Cornwallis was able to create a class of staunch loyalist in form of these zamindars. Knowing that they had permanent hold over their land, the zamindars took special interest in its improvement and thus the company was able to make higher profits in form of the collection of the land revenue.

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