Political Science-1999-[ Set- I ]

Q 1. Mention any two sources of law(2 marks).
Ans 1. Sources of law may include:-

(a) CUSTOMS – In every community the earliest form of law is traceable in the well established practices of the people. These practices developed because of the utility inherent in them. In due course a practice becomes a uage which after sufficient standing hardens into a custom. e.g. the common law of England consists mainly of customs accepted by courts of law.

(b) LEGISLATION – It means placing of a specific rule on the statute book of the land. It reflects the will of the state as determined by the law making organs. Due to the codification of law, uncertainities and ambiguities have been sufficiently narrowed down.

Q 2. What do you understand by Constitutional Law? (2 marks)
Ans 2. Constitutional Law includes all rules which directly or indirectly affect the distribution or the exercise of power in the state and which are enforced by the courts. Constitutional Law defines the organisation of the state, determines the functions exercised by different departments of government, and establishes the relationship between the rulers and the ruled. It may be either written or unwritten. It may be the result of the deliberate effort of
a body – like the Constituent Assembly or it may be the product of history and may consist of customs, usages and judicial decisions, as in Britain.

Q 3. What is the meaning of a welfare state? (2 marks)
Ans 3. Welfare state is that state which works for the happiness and prosperity of the people so that each individual can develop his personality. It means that the state must take upon itself the social responsibility of providing goods and services to weaker sections in society.
The aim of the welfare state is preventive. It seeks to alter the very conditions which lead to unemployment, sickness or poverty. Thus a welfare state is expected to look after public health, provide education, ensure right to work, right to shelter and unemployment benefits to all its citizens.

Q 4. What is the anarchist view of state activitiy? (2 marks)
Ans 4. Anarchism is the doctrine that political authority, in any of its forms, is unnecessary and undesirable. The state is regarded as the embodiment of force employed in the government of the community. Liberty is supreme in the Anarchist creed, but it is sought by abolishing the state and all its institutions exercising forcible control over the individuals. Proudhan was the author of the term anarchy. He was against the state, since it had evolved out of the system of private property & supported in equities in society.

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