Political Science : 2000 : Set II

Q.1 What do you understand by “Dictatorship of the Proletariat’?
Ans.1 The transitional period after the occurance of the proletarian revolutional is called the Dictatorship of the Proletariat. The power will be captured by the workers. The proletarian dictatorship will monopolise state power and shall use it as an instrument for consolidating its political victory and for the establishment of social order by redistribution the assets of capitalist and landlords and placing the means of production into the hand of the community. The basis of economy would be from each according to his work. The next stage will be the establishment of a classless society called communism.

Q.2 Briefly explain the idealist concept of state action ?
Ans.2 The idealist concept of state action was given by T.H. Green . It means that the state is a moral institution, it creates those circumstances in men’s life by which every man can develop his personality. The state has a negative moral function of removing the obstacles which prevent them from making themselves better. Punishment is supposed to be a counter force against against the brutal force of the culprit. The state is expected to further the cause of peace and should avoid wars.

Q.3 Describe any two Directive Principles related to the welfare of women in India?
Ans.3 The Directive principles lay down some 19 objectives enjoining the state to undertake within its means a number of welfare measures. Directives related to the welfare of women in India are:

(1) Article 39 [d] :- Directs the statepolicy towards securing equal pay for equal wok for both men and women . It thus seeks to end the age-old discrimination between men and women and gives her an equal
footing with a man.
(2) Article 42 :- Lays down that the state shall make provisions for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.
Thus the maternity period will no longer be considered as an hinderance in a women’s career when she will get a relief benefit during that period.

Q.4 “Rights imply duties” comment?
Ans.4 Rights and duties are two faces of the same coin. The rights are considered to be essential for the expansion of human personality. They offer the individual sufficient scope for free action and thus prepare ground for self – development. However these rights become meaningless in the absence of duties.

Prof. Laski lays down a four – fold connection between rights and duties.

1. My right implies your duty : e.g. my right to life implies that others should give protection and security to my life.

2. My right implies my duty to admit a similer right of others :- e.g. my right to speech implies that it is my duty to see that I may not be a hinderance in the free exercise of this right by others.

3. I Should exercise my right to promote social good :- A person should not abuse/misuse the rights given to him by the state or else the state will be justified in depriving the person of his right .

4.Since the state guarantees and maintains my rights, I have the duty to support the state.
Thus rights without duties have no meaning and duties without rights appear senseless.

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