Political Science : 2000 : Set I

Q1. What do you understand by Fascism?
Ans. 1 Fascism is derived from the word ‘Fascio’ which means an organised political group or a club. Fascism was not a well-knit doctrine. It was more of an attitude. It openly opposes ideologies and maintains that it is an action oriented movement based on pragmatism. However, its
ideology was described in the form formlated by leaders like Mussolini & Hitler.

Fascism supports the idea of a totalitarian state and believes in aggressive nationalism. It is opposed to internationalism.It is basically anti-revolutionary and anti-democratic.

Q.2. Explain a ‘Laissez – faire state’?
Ans.2The first phase of liberalism saw the rise of a laissez-faire state or a free market state. Here the stress lies on individualism. Laissez-faire state provides a breeding ground for a capitalist economy. Here the state is seen as a necessary evil which should perform minimum functions
like maintenaneof law and order and should have no conrol on trade, capital investment and business growth . Individual rights are given supreme importance and the state is governed by the Darwainian theory of “Survival of the fittest”.

However, such a kind of state increases the gap between the rich and the poor leading to cyclic booms and depressions in the economy. Hence some kind of regulation is needed. The main proponents of laissez – faire state were Adam Smith & Locke.

Q.3. Describe any two Directive Principles related to the welfare of women in India?
Ans.3 The Directive principles lay down some 19 objectives enjoining the state to undertake within its means a number of welfare measures. Directives related to the welfare of women in India are:

(1) Article 39 [d] :- Directs the state policy towards securing equal pay for equal work for both men and women. It thus seeks to end the age-old discrimination between men & women and gives her an equal
footing with men.
(2) Article 42 :- Lays down that the state shall make provisions for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Thus the maternity period will no longer be considered as an hinderance in a women’s career when she will get a relief benefit during that period.

Q. 4. “Rights imply duties.” Comment?
Ans.4 Rights and duties are two faces of the same coin. The rights are considered to be essential for the expansion of human personality. They offer the individual sufficient scope for free action and thus prepare ground for self – development. However these rights become meaningless in the
absence of duties.

Prof. Laski lays down a four – fold connection between rights and duties.

1. My right implies your duty : e.g. my right to life implies that others should give protection and security to my life.

2. My right implies my duty to admit a similr right of others :- e.g. my right to speech implies that it is my duty to see that I may not be a hinderance in the free exercise of this right by others.

3. I Shoud exercise my right to promote social good :- A person should not abuse/misuse the rights given to him by the state or else the state will be justified in depriving the person of his right .

4.Since the state guarantees and maintains my rights, I have the duty to support the state.

Thus rights without duties have no meaning and duties without rights appear senseless.

Q 5 What do you understand by proportional representation?
Ans.5 The main focus of this system is to ensure that the number of seats a political party gets in the legislature should be proportionate to the popular votes it obains from the electrorate in any given election. Thus, it seeks to remedy a prevalent imbalance in most of the election systems, in which there is no direct correlation between votes and seats. The two methods by which proportional representation can be achieve are: single transferable vote system or the Hare system and the list system.

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