Political Science-1996-Set I

Q1. Define Law. (2 marks)
Ans. The word Law comes from the old teutonic route ‘lag’ whihc means to lay, to place, to set So it is something laid down or set. However, it would be more appropriate to define law as a set of generally accepted rules and regulations governing inter-relationships in human society seeking to create order and balanced development of all laws may be natural or positive, national or international, constitutional or ordinary, civil or criminal and public or private.

Q2. What do you under stand by the theory of surplus value?
(2 marks)

Ans. The theory of surplus value is the corner stone of the Marxian economic theory. According to this theory, labour is the source of the value of a commodity. The value of a commodity is determined by the amount of necessary labour time spent on it. Marx defines a commodity as conceiled labour and value as crystalised labour. The capitalist produces a commodity by the application of his labour to machinery and raw material. The commodity then commands a certain market value. The wages which are paid to the worker bear no proportion to the price which the commodity fetches. The difference between the value of the commodity and the wages paid to the worker constitutes the profit or the surplus. The surplus value is appropriated by the capitalist which according to marx ought to have gone to labourers. This, says marx, is pure and simple exploitation.

Q3. What did Gandhiji mean by Ahimsa? (2 marks)
Ans. Gandhiji’s greatest contribution to politics in particular and life in general was his teaching and practice of Ahimsa. Negatively, Ahimsa means refraining from causing pain. On the positive side, Ahimsa is co-terminous with the christian principle of love. However, it does not mean meek submission to the will of the evil doer. It is sould force or truth force. It means resistance to evil with all the moral and spiritual force that a person can command.

Q4. Give any two points of difference between the Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles. (2 marks)
Ans. The directive principles differ from fundamental rights in these respects:-
(a) The Fundamental Rights are justiciable and the Supreme Court and the High Courts have powers to issue orders or writs for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights. Directive Principles, on the other hand, confer no legal rights and create no legal remedies.

(b) The Fundamental Rights are intended to foster the ideal of a political democracy. IN order that the democractic principle may work effectively, the citizens require protection of their life and full opportunity to assemble and express their opinion regarding matters of generla interest. Fundamental Rights are primarily aimed at securing these freedoms to the citizens. The Directive Principles indicate as to what our economic ideal or social order should be.

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