Q 3. When and by whom was the Munich Pact Signed? (2)
Ans. 3 Munich Pact was signed in September 1938 by Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain & the PM of France, Daladier. Through this Pact, Britain & France agreed without the consent of Czechoslovakia to Germany’s claim on Sudetenland.
Q 4. Why did Gandhiji call off the Non-cooperation Movement in 1922? (2)
Ans. 4 Mahatma Gandhi called off the Noncooperation Movement in 1922 because of the following reasons :-
(a) Mahatma Gandhi was a staunch follower of Ahimsa or nonviolence. The Chauri Chaura incident, wherein a furious mob burnt 22 policemen alive, aggrieved him deeply. He was determined to launch a nonviolent movement & therefore withdraw before the movement could take a violent turn.
(b) He also felt that if the movement was allowed to be violent, then the Government would let loose a region of terror in which many innocent lives could be lost. A violent movement could be easily suppressed by the British . Therefore, he withdraw the movement.
Q 6. Trace the events leading to the emergence of Nonviolent Movement . What were its objectives ? (4)
Ans. 6 After the Second World War, the war – time alliance between the USSR & USA collapsed and they became hostile to each other. Their ideological differences and distrust of each other’s designs led to a situation in which a kind of cold war ensued with both sides forming different blocs. Both sides tried to attract the newly independent countries to join their respective blocs. However, the newly independent countries who had just arisen from the York of colonialism wanted to follow independent foreign policies. Moreover they wanted aid from both the power blocs in order to build their shattered and devastated economy. has emerged the Nonaligned Movement . Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru , the First Prime Minister of India along with President Nasser of Egypt and Egypt & President Tito of Yugoslavia played an important
role in its emergence.
Its main objective included:-
1. Stabilization of World peace
2. Liquidation of colonialism and Imperialism in all their forms.
3. Peaceful coexistence between Nations
4. Condemnation of Racial Discrimination
5. Opposition to Military Alliances
7. Respect for Human Rights and
8. Establishment of economic relations between Nations based on Equality.