Q 1. Mention two important events of 1917 which turned the course of the First World War. (2)
Ans.1 Two important events of 1917 which turned the course of the First World War were:-
(a) America’s declaration of war against Germany on 6th April, 1917 making the war truely global war tilted in favour of Britain.
(b) Withdrawal of Russia from the war after the October Revolution. A peace treaty was signed between Germany and Russia. Germany imposed harsh terms and Russia accepted them. The Entante powers started an armed intervention in Russia which ended in the former’s defeat.
Q 2. Describe two reforms introduced by the Russian Czar, Nicholas II after the 1905 revolution. (2)
Ans. 2 Reform introduced by Nicholas II after the 1905 revolution included:-
(1) The Czar announced his manifesto granting freedom of speech, press and association and conferred power to make laws upon an elected body called the ‘Duma’.
(2) The Czar’s manifesto contained principles which would have made Russia a constitutional monarchy.
Q 3. Name any two organizations set up for African Liberation Movement. (2)
Ans. 3 The African liberation movement began in the right earnest after the second World War. Within no time various organizations were set-up in different African countries for achieving their independence. Two such organizations were:-
(1) SWAPO in Namibia
(2) African National Congress in South Africa under Nelson Mandela’s leadership.
Q 4. Why did the indian leaders oppose Rowlatt Act in 1919. (2)
Ans.4 Indian leaders opposed Rowlatt Act because it had empowered the Government to imprison people without trial. This act of repression did not allow any ‘Vakil, dalil or appeal’.
Q 5. What is meant by Opium War? Describe the effects of Opium War on China. (4)
Ans.5 In 1839, a Chinese government official seized an Opium Cargo and destroyed it which the British merchants were trying to smuggle into China. Britain, thus declared a war against China. This was known as Opium War and it ended in Chinese defeat.
The Chinese were forced to pay heavy damages to the British and to open five port cities to British traders. The Chinese government also agreed that in future British subjects in these ports would be tried for any crimes in English rather than in Chinese Courts. This provision came to be known as extra-territorial rights. The Chinese government was no longer free to impose tariff on foreign goods. The island of Hong Kong was turned over to Britain.
Within no time other powers like France, Germany, Japan, America began to exploit the situation and thus began the scramble for China by the imperialist powers.