Social Science -1999-Set I

Q 1. Mention two important events of 1917 which turned the course of the First World War. (2)
Ans.1 Two important events of 1917 which turned the course of the First World War were:-

(a) America’s declaration of war against Germany on 6th April, 1917 making the war truely global war tilted in favour of Britain.

(b) Withdrawal of Russia from the war after the October Revolution. A peace treaty was signed between Germany and Russia. Germany imposed harsh terms and Russia accepted them. The Entante powers started an armed intervention in Russia which ended in the former’s defeat.

Q 2. Describe two reforms introduced by the Russian Czar, Nicholas II after the 1905 revolution. (2)
Ans. 2 Reform introduced by Nicholas II after the 1905 revolution included:-

(1) The Czar announced his manifesto granting freedom of speech, press and association and conferred power to make laws upon an elected body called the ‘Duma’.

(2) The Czar’s manifesto contained principles which would have made Russia a constitutional monarchy.

Q 3. Name any two organizations set up for African Liberation Movement. (2)
Ans. 3 The African liberation movement began in the right earnest after the second World War. Within no time various organizations were set-up in different African countries for achieving their independence. Two such organizations were:-
(1) SWAPO in Namibia
(2) African National Congress in South Africa under Nelson Mandela’s leadership.

Q 4. Why did the indian leaders oppose Rowlatt Act in 1919. (2)
Ans.4 Indian leaders opposed Rowlatt Act because it had empowered the Government to imprison people without trial. This act of repression did not allow any ‘Vakil, dalil or appeal’.

Q 5. What is meant by Opium War? Describe the effects of Opium War on China. (4)
Ans.5 In 1839, a Chinese government official seized an Opium Cargo and destroyed it which the British merchants were trying to smuggle into China. Britain, thus declared a war against China. This was known as Opium War and it ended in Chinese defeat.

The Chinese were forced to pay heavy damages to the British and to open five port cities to British traders. The Chinese government also agreed that in future British subjects in these ports would be tried for any crimes in English rather than in Chinese Courts. This provision came to be known as extra-territorial rights. The Chinese government was no longer free to impose tariff on foreign goods. The island of Hong Kong was turned over to Britain.

Within no time other powers like France, Germany, Japan, America began to exploit the situation and thus began the scramble for China by the imperialist powers.

Social Science-1999-Set II

Q 3. When and by whom was the Munich Pact Signed? (2)
Ans. 3 Munich Pact was signed in September 1938 by Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain & the PM of France, Daladier. Through this Pact, Britain & France agreed without the consent of Czechoslovakia to Germany’s claim on Sudetenland.

Q 4. Why did Gandhiji call off the Non-cooperation Movement in 1922? (2)
Ans. 4 Mahatma Gandhi called off the Noncooperation Movement in 1922 because of the following reasons :-

(a) Mahatma Gandhi was a staunch follower of Ahimsa or nonviolence. The Chauri Chaura incident, wherein a furious mob burnt 22 policemen alive, aggrieved him deeply. He was determined to launch a nonviolent movement & therefore withdraw before the movement could take a violent turn.

(b) He also felt that if the movement was allowed to be violent, then the Government would let loose a region of terror in which many innocent lives could be lost. A violent movement could be easily suppressed by the British . Therefore, he withdraw the movement.

Q 6. Trace the events leading to the emergence of Nonviolent Movement . What were its objectives ? (4)
Ans. 6 After the Second World War, the war – time alliance between the USSR & USA collapsed and they became hostile to each other. Their ideological differences and distrust of each other’s designs led to a situation in which a kind of cold war ensued with both sides forming different blocs. Both sides tried to attract the newly independent countries to join their respective blocs. However, the newly independent countries who had just arisen from the York of colonialism wanted to follow independent foreign policies. Moreover they wanted aid from both the power blocs in order to build their shattered and devastated economy. has emerged the Nonaligned Movement . Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru , the First Prime Minister of India along with President Nasser of Egypt and Egypt & President Tito of Yugoslavia played an important
role in its emergence.

Its main objective included:-
1. Stabilization of World peace
2. Liquidation of colonialism and Imperialism in all their forms.
3. Peaceful coexistence between Nations
4. Condemnation of Racial Discrimination
5. Opposition to Military Alliances
6. Disarmament
7. Respect for Human Rights and
8. Establishment of economic relations between Nations based on Equality.

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Social Science-1999-Set III


Q 3.When was Pearl Harbour attacked by Japan? State an important effect of this invasion? (2)
Ans. 3 Japan joined the Berlin – Rome – Tokyo Axis and entered the war in 1941 to satisfy her hunger for more territories. In order to expand her territories, she attacked the U.S. Naval base at Pearl Harbour at Hawai in the Pacific Ocean on December 7, 1941.

America lost 20 warships and 250 Aircrafts. About 3000 people were killed. An important effect of this invasion was that it greatly accelerated the war when on the very next day USA declared war on Japan.

Q 4.Why did extremism grow within the Congress by the turn of the 19th Century? Give 2 reasons. (2)
Ans. 4 Extremism grow within the Congress because of the following reasons:-

1) The method of resolution and petitions adopted by the moderates failed to achieve anything. The British turned a deaf ear to them which led to the rise of extremists who resolved to give a radical shape to their movement and fight for their freedom.

2) The Reactionary policies of Lord Curzon further incited the masses. The Act of 1898 made it an offense to provoke people against the English . In 1899, he passed the Calcutta Corporation Act and increased the number of official members. By the Indian Universities Act of 1904 he imposed strict official control over the Indian Universities because he considered them as the centres of nationalism. In 1904 , he passed the Official Secrets Act. Even the leakage of ordinary information regarding Civil Administration was considered illegal according to this Act. All these measures provoked the peopleand added to the power and prestige of national militants.

Social Science-2000-Set I

Section – A : History

Q1.What is referred to as ‘paper partition’ in the colonisation of Africa? (2)
Ans. 1 Different European powers entered into agreements/treaties often fraudulent and bogus) with the rulers of African States and brought their states as their `Protectorates’ with a promise to support them against their rivals. Through these treaties, they obtained recognition of other European powers and the process of occupation began without any hindrance from them. This position is referred to as `paper partition’ as the actual partition took much longer and was accomplished by the use of the superior military might of the European Powers to suppress the resistance by the Africans.

Q 2.Name the political parties of Russia that represented the industrial workers. How did they differ in heir policies? (2)
Ans. 2 The industrial workers of Russia were mainly represented through the `Bolsheviks’ and the `Mensheviks’ . The Bolsheviks were the majority group of the workers who believed in the revolutionary methods for bringing about changes in the society and the state. In their opinion, the parliamentary methods would not be able to bring about any changes in a country like Russia where no democratic rights existed and where there was no parliament. On the other hand, Mensheviks believed in parliamentary methods and participation in elections for running the state and the society. They were in he minority. They favoured parties as were existing in France and Germany which took part in elections to the legislature of their countries.

Q 3.Which were the countries that signed the Anti-comintern pact? Why was this Pact signed? (2)
Ans. 3 Anti-Comintern pact was signed between Germany, Italy and Japan in 1937 with an aim to check the expansion of communism in the world. They also pledged to follow an aggressive policy for the expansion of territories.

Social Science-2000-Set II

Section `A’ – History

Q 1. What is meant by ‘Civilising Mission’? (2)
Ans. 1 Many Europeans believed that they were destined to bring civilisation to the backward people of the world. The famous English writer, Rudyard Kipling, asked his countrymen to shoulder what he called `The white man’s burden’. Joules Ferry, in France, said, `Superior races have the duty of civilising the inferior races’. Thus, they thought themselves on being on a civilising mission.

Q 2. What two conditions, according to Lenin, were necessary to make the Russian revolution a success? (2)
Ans. 2 To make the Russian revolution a success, Lenin believed that people should :-
(i) Fully understand the revolution and be ready to sacrifice their lives for it.
(ii) The existing government should be in a state of crises to make it possible for it to be overthrown.

Q 3. Which were the countries that followed the policy of appeasement? Why did they follow this policy? (2)
Ans. 3 Britain and France were the two main countries which followed the policy of appeasement. Since the success of the Russian Revolution, the western countries, being capitalist themselves, had been haunted by the danger of communism. Germany, Italy and Japan had claimed that they were fighting against communism. As such the western countries thought that the fascist countries would rid them of the danger of communism, so they followed the policy of appeasement.

Social Science-2000-Set III

Section – A : History

Q 1. What is meant by the ‘cutting of the Chinese Melon’? (2)
Ans. 1 The term ‘cutting of the Chinese Melon’ means the division of China into different spheres of influence. By advancing loans to China the four European powers – France, Britain, Russia and Germany – divided China into their respective spheres of influence. Britain established her influence over the Yangtze Valley and got Wei-Hai-Wei in addition to Hong Kong. France got control of Kwangchow Bay and extensive rights in three Southern provinces of China. Germany received Kiaochow Bay and exclusive rights in Shantung and the Hwang-Ho Valley. Russia got the Liatung Peninsula and the exclusive rights to build roads in Manchuria.

Q 2. What was the condition of the non-Russian minorities in Russia before the Russian revolution ? (2)
Ans. 2 The Non-Russian nationalities were forcibly included in the Russian territory due to the Czar’s policy of expansion. Russian culture and Russian language was imposed on them. They were, however, not given a right to vote or self-determination.

Q 5. Mention the reasons for conflict in the Balkan Region? (4)
Ans. 5 Till the early 19th century the entire Balkan Peninsula was a part of the Ottoman Empire. However, by early 20th Century, the Ottoman rule over the Balkans had ended Serbia, Bulgaria, and Albania had emerged as independent states. Serbia had emerged as a Champion of the Slav people, many of whom inhabited the Austro-Hungarian empire. She depended on Russia’s support in her ambition to create Greater Serbia which would include the Ottoman provinces of Bosnia and Herzgovina that were under Austria – Hungary and the Southern areas of Austria – Hungary which were inhabited by the Slav people. She encouraged discontent in these areas and organised conspiracies against Austria – Hungary. This region became the source of increasing tensions in Europe and finally provided the incident which brought about the First World War. In 1908, Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzgovina which had been placed under her administrative control. Serbia wanted Russia to go to war with Austria-Hungary in the event of a war restrained Russia. There was further intensification of bitterness in Serbia against Austria – Hungary as a result of the Balkan wars in 1912-13. Some of the Balkan states, including Serbia, had united, with Russian support, to conquer Macedonia from the Ottomans. However, after the Ottomans had been defeated, Austria-Hungary, with the support of Britain and Germany, succeeded in making Albania an independent state rather than a part of Serbia which Serbia had hoped.

Accounts-1996-Set I

Q 1) Define Partnership. State the main provisions of the Partnership Act relating to partnership accounts in the absence of partnership deed. (Marks 3)
Ans. 1) Partnership :
The relationship between persons who have agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any one of them acting for all. In the absence of the partnership deed, the following provisions are applicable :
(i) No interest is payable on the capital to the partners.
(ii) No interest is charged on partners drawings.
(iii) 6% p.a. interest is charged on loan advanced by a partner to the firm.
(iv) Profits are to be shared equally by all partners.
(v) No salary is payable to any partner for any extra time devoted by him for the business.

Q2) A and B are partners sharing profits in the ratio of 3 : 2 with capitals of Rs. 50,000 and Rs. 30,000 respectively. Interest on capital is agreed @ 6% p.a. B is to be allowed an annual salary of Rs. 2,500. During 1995, the profits of the year prior to calculation of interest on capital but after charging B’s salary amounted to Rs. 12,500. A provision of 5% of the profits is to be made in respect of manager’s commission.
Prepare an account showing the allocation of profits and partner’s capital account. (Marks 5)

Ans. 2)

Q 3) A and B are partners sharing profits in the ratio of 3 : 2. C is admitted as a partner. The new profit – sharing ratio among A, B and C is 4 : 3 : 2. Find out the sacrificing ratio.
Ans. 3) A’s sacrifice = A’s old share – A’s new share
= 3/5 – 4/9
= 7/45
B’s sacrifice = B’s old share – B’s new share
= 2/5 – 3/9
= 3/45
Thus, the sacrificing ratio of A and B :
A : B
7 : 3

Accounts-1996-Set II

Q1) A and B are partners sharing profits in the ration of 4 : 3. C is admitted as a partner. The new profit-sharing ration is 3 : 2 : 1. Find out the sacrificing ratio. (Marks 2)
Ans1) A : B : C
3 : 2 : 1 New Ratio
Old ratio = A : B
4 : 3
A’s sacrifice = A’s old share – A’s new share
= 4/7 – 3/6 = 3/42
B’s sacrifice = 3/7 – 2/6 = 4/42
Thus, the sacrificing ratio = A : B
= 3 : 4

Q3) Define partnership. In the absence of Partnership Deed, what are the rules regarding :
(i) Profit-sharing ratio. (ii) Interest on drawings, (iii) Interest on Capital, (iv) Interest on loan given by a partner. (Marks 3)

Ans3) Partnership is defined as -
The relationship between persons who have agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any one of them acting for all.
In the absence of the information, the following rules will apply,
1. Profit sharing ratio : this will be equal for all the partners.
2. Interest on drawings : No interest is charged on drawings.
3. Interest on capital : No interest is paid on capital.
4. Interest on loan given by partners : Interest @ 6% p.a. will be given to the partners on their loans.

Q4) Mention the items that may appear on the credit side of the capital account of a partner when the capitals are fluctuating.
Ans4) The following items may appear on the credit of the capital account of a partner when the capital accounts are fluctuating :
(i) Opening balance of capital (Cr.),
(ii) Share of profit,
(iii) Interest on capital,
(iv) Salary (if allowed),
(v) Goodwill,
(vi) Share of general reserve.

Accounts -1997-Set I

Q1) Give any three points of distinction between revaluation account and realisation account. (Marks 3)
Ans1) Revaluation and Realisation account :
(i) Revaluation is prepared at the time of admission, retirement and death of a partner. Realisation is prepared at the time of dissolution of the firm.
(ii) Revaluation is prepared record the effect of revaluation of assets and liabilities. Realisation records the realisation of various assets and liabilities.
(iii) As a result of revaluation, assets and liabilities are revalued and not closed down. Whereas as a result of realisation, the assets and liabilities accounts are closed.

Q2) Can forfeited shares be issued at a discount? If so, to what extent? (Marks 3)
Ans2) The forfeited shares can be reissued at a discount. However, the discount on the reissue of such shares cannot exceed the amount earlier forfeited on such shares, i.e. amount received on re-issue plus the amount already received on forfeited shares should not be less than the paid up value of shares.

Q3) Ashoka Ltd. purchased machinery costing Rs. 1,35,000. It was agreed that the purchase consideration be paid by issuing 12% debentures of Rs. 100 each. Assume debentures have been issued (i) at par and (ii) at a discount of 10%. Give necessary journal entries. (Marks 3)
Ans3) Working Notes :
No. of debentures = 135000/90
= 1500

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